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We are facing pollution problem every day. When pollutants and contaminants get mixed with water and change the biochemical nature of the water and makes the water unable to be used in any form is known as water pollution. The water pollutants can be anything, like plastic, excess oil, wasted materials from the industry, etc. So, we can say that the reason for water pollution is mainly humans. The required BOD is decreasing day by day due to the activities of humans, and that’s why various living beings are facing danger, their lives are at risk. Water pollution has reached an extreme level, and scientists are being compelled to research the effects that it has on the lives of earth.
Types of Water Pollution:
Depending on the type of water, water pollution can be divided into three types. They are:
- Groundwater pollution
- Surface water pollution
- Marine water pollution
1. Groundwater pollution:
The water from the drainage system and industry gets contaminated and polluted due to various incentives mixes with the surface water of the layer of the earth soil, known as groundwater and contaminate it. By doing so, it changes the biological and chemical nature of the water and destroys the quality.
2. Surface water pollution:
In this scenario, the wastewater from the drainage system and industries remains on the water of the topmost layer of the earth, known as surface water and pollutes it.
3. Marine water pollution:
The contaminated water goes to the rivers and eventually reach the seas and mixes with it. Therefore, it changes the nature of the water. BOD and COD change dramatically and the ecosystem of marines gets disturbed.
Sources and effects of water pollution:
Various reasons change the biological and chemical nature of water, and makes it polluted. But, the main reason of pollution points out to humans. The causes that affect the quality of water are mentioned below:
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Industrial wastages such as mercury, leads, asbestos, petrochemical oil, and ashes get mixed with the water bodies, and therefore, contamination occurs. This procedure makes the water, be it a river, ponds, or seas, unable to drink and often becomes a problem to use it for household, domestic, or plants. Other than that, the contamination of water disturbs marine ecosystems. It changes BOD and COD, thereby destroying the quality of water. There are numerous occurrences where dead fishes and sea animals can be found on the shores of the seas due to the increased amount of chemicals. The oils that leak from ships mixes with the seawater and does not provide enough oxygen for sea animals, so they cannot breathe.
1. Sewage and Waste Water:
Another reason for water pollution is the mixing of wastewater. Often, the sewage water and sewer can not be rid of the contaminants and pollutants. They mix with clear water and eradicates the water quality. It is very harmful, not only to humans but furthermore for sea animals, fishes, and plants too.
2. Global warming:
Global warming is another factor that occasionally gets associated with the cause of the heightened level of water pollution. Due to global warming, the temperature of the water and nature is increasing, which is making the fishes, sea animals, and plants unable to survive.
3. Radioactive substance wastage:
Radioactive substance wastage also has an essential role in the course of water pollution. Different types of dangerous substances are being used in atomic power plants, mechanical, biochemical, and the medical industry. Watches, glowing timekeepers, TV, and x-ray beam equipment contains them. Other than that, different isotopes of radioactive substances are often found naturally in the environment and on the lives of the earth. The radioactive substance wastage can cause extreme water pollution if not being treated and discarded in the right way.
Dumping is another reason for water pollution. Powerful wastages and junk are being dumped in the water every day. They reduce the oxygen level of water and change the biochemical nature. Therefore, it destroys the ecosystem.
Measures to control water pollution:
Several measures can control water pollution.
- People need to be educated about water pollution and its effects.
- Some laws and fines can be applied if industries or production lines dump a considerable amount of pollutants in the water. Such laws should be authorized to make sure the water is safe from contamination.
- TV, Radio, and other media should warn the people of water contamination.
- Drains should be cleared, garbage and chemicals should be appropriately utilized.
The implementation of cleaning water bodies in the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan:
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’s implementation is strictly needed in this situation. In rural and urban areas, open poo and junk dumping are still present. They get mixed with the pond water and poison it. Pond water is used for bathing and other works. Due to pollution, people can’t use it. A practice of cleanliness is needed for the pure souls of Swachh Bharat.
Everyday steps for all to curb water pollution:
- Make sure your vehicle is not leaking oils.
- Use nature-friendly cleaning items so that they don’t destroy water bodies.
- Use your water moderately; don’t waste it.
- Think ways to use, reuse, and recycle everything.
Keep your paper and plastics in the reuse box and glass and recyclable items in the recycle box.
- Use a proper latrine system.
- Don’t dump the junk and wastage.
Water plays an essential role in this surface of the earth for humans and many lives of nature. Due to several reasons, water pollution is occurring and increasing. It has become a significant issue that we need to think about. We must know if we want to survive and maintain other lives and ecosystems, we should make sure that it doesn’t get polluted. Researchers from different continents are studying ways to control it. The human population is increasing with time, and we should take every step to make sure that water is maintaining its ideal quality and biochemical nature.