India is very rich in minerals. A wide variety of minerals can be found in different areas of India. Minerals are very important part of our life. Why there is need of minerals? Because minerals are very essential for daily purpose, they are important for economic and technological development.
Minerals are basically naturally occurring substances and have crystalline structure. There are thousands of minerals on earth. Minerals are finite and non-renewable resources. Industries use minerals as raw material for the development of their resources.
India is leading producer of some of the minerals. 89 minerals are produced in India. In which fuel materials are 4, metallic materials are 11, non-metallic material are 52 and minor materials are 22.
India is largest producer of minerals like mica blocks and mica spitting. India is in third position for the production of coal and lignite.
Classes of minerals
- Carbonates: It consists of carbonates, the nitrates and the borates.
- Elements: It consists of metals, alloys and nonmetals.
- Halides: It consists of fluorides, chlorides and iodides.
- Oxides: It consists of oxides and hydroxides.
- Phosphates: It consists of arsenates, vanadates and antimonites.
- Sulfates: It consists of sulfates, sulfites, chromates.
- Silicates: It is the largest class.
- Sulfides: It consists of selenite, telluride and sulfosalts.
Mineral wealth of India is very good there is adequate range of minerals across the country. Country is deficient in minerals like ores of copper, lead, zinc, tin and sulpher. India has economically useful minerals.
There are three categories of minerals
- Metallic minerals
- Non- metallic minerals
- Mineral fuel
They are iron ore, manganese, bauxite and chromite.
- Iron ore:
India is on 4th position for the production of iron ore. Iron mines of India are in different states such as Bihar, Goa, Orissa, and Karnataka. The famous iron mines are in Bihar, Orissa and Karnataka.
India is a very good exporter of iron ore and earns a good deal in foreign exchange.
For making steel manganese is used. Manganese mines are located in Nagpur, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa.
Manganese is exported to other countries like USA and U.K.
Chromite is used in leather and steel industries. Producer states of Chromite are Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
It is the most valuable product of India. Gold mines are in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. It is used for banking purpose also. Gold controls the country’s monetary system.
It is very necessary for electrical industries and also used as alloys. Producer states of copper are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Karnataka.
Non- metallic Minerals
Mica, Limestone and gypsum are important non-metallic minerals of India.
Used in iron and steel. Limestone industries in India are located at Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.
Mica is used in electrical industries. Industries are located in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
It is used to make papers. Gypsum mines in India are located in Tamilnadu, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
Mineral fuels are used to supply energy. Important mineral fuels are coal, nuclear energy and mineral oil.
Coal is found in fossils of forests. It is found in layers of rocks. Coal’s categories are divided on the basis of its carbon contents. Peat is the best quality of coal.
- Mineral oil:
Mineral oil is found in interior of earth. It is available in land and also in continental shelves of seas. It is refined in refineries. The products of mineral oils are petrol, diesel and kerosene.
- Nuclear Energy Minerals:
Uranium, Thorium and Mennonite are nuclear energy minerals, they are radioactive materials.
Minerals have different properties each mineral is unique. According to category minerals vary.
Benefits of Minerals
- For making large buildings we need minerals without minerals we cannot build large building so for the purpose of it we do use of iron as steel.
- We cannot make large buildings without bricks and roofing tiles so for this purpose we use clay. Clay is used for many purposes.
- For roofing tiles we can use clay as well as slate.
- For cement we can do use of gypsum and shale.
- In concrete we do use of sand gravel and crushed rock as minerals those are used for architectural designs of buildings.
- For plaster we go use of gypsum.
- For window glasses silica sand is used.
- Copper wire is use for wiring and plumbing.
- For painting purpose we use pigments.
Minerals are used for architectural purposes such as potash and limes are used as fertilizers and minerals like sulphur is used to improve the quality of soil.
Minerals are very necessary while we drink and eat. Minerals make our drinking water clean and makes it bacterial free. So there is a huge role of mineral in our daily life and also it is very necessary. We should do use of mineral for our betterment.