Transport or transportation is the means for movement of humans, animals, goods, etc. for one place to another for some purpose.
It is transportation that enables communication, trade, exchange, etc. between societies and localities and therefore, it is extremely important for the development of it.
Transportation contributes to the development of economic, social, political and cultural fields of a civilization and leads to the betterment of their conditions.
The revolutions that happened throughout history, such as the Industrial Revolution, or the Russian Revolutions, etc. would have been incomplete and ineffective without good means of transportation’s.
It may also be said that having better and more effective means and lines of transportation than other countries, makes a country more powerful or prosperous. Thus, it becomes a criterion to assess the development of a country.
Functions of transportation
There are various functions of transportation, because of which it is important. These are:
Physical Supply of Products
Transportation becomes a means to carry necessary raw materials from raw material providers to factories where it is used to for production of goods.
From there, these products are carried to wholesalers and then markets, when it finally reaches in the hands of consumers.
In this process, it is transportation that plays the primary role. Without it, this process of supply of product to the market would not have been possible.
In fact, transport is such a key of marketing, which helps in carrying goods to the scattered consumers in different places, narrows the gap between producers and consumers and facilitates to distribute goods to the consumers at minimum cost and time.
Specialization: Transportation leads to specialization or division of labor. It leads to commercial prosperity of those involved in it, and proved an alternative opportunity for employment for those looking for it.
Stabilization in Price
Transportation helps to bring stability in prices of different commodities. It helps in relocation of goods from more supplied places to scarcely supplied areas.
This results in coherence between demand and supply, and thus brings stability in prices of the commodities. Transportation also encourages healthy competition amongst suppliers, which results in the ultimate development of the society and community.
Modes of transportation
There are various modes of transportation that are employed in its process. These are:
Land Transport System
Land transport is the oldest and most practiced system. The means, which are used to carry people and goods through land transport are called land transportation.
Land transportation is divided in two modes as road transport and railway transport. Road transport has been used since ancient time and it is very useful and important.
The means of road transport are: a). men and labors, b). animals such as mule, horse, sheep, goat, camel etc. c). cart, lorry etc. d). the modern automobile such as motor, bus, truck, tractor, tempo, trolley bus, jeep etc. are also used to transport people and goods.
People, cloths, paper materials, books, machines and machinery, animals, fresh fruits and other goods are transported from one place to another.
On the other hand, railways are used to transport goods and people from one place to another much faster and more efficiently than by road.
Development of railway transport helps much to develop industry, commerce and whole economy of any country.
It is very useful in transporting big and heavy goods and materials such as big machines, coal, food grain, chemicals, automobiles, iron, steel etc.
Water Transport System
Water transport is as an ancient means of transport, it was developed and used to transport goods and people from one country to another before the development of air transport.
It is also operated to transport goods from one part to another of any country through big canals, rivers or sea.
Water transport is a system of transporting goods and people from one place to another by ship, boat, steamer, motorboat etc. through canals, rivers, lake, sea, ocean etc.
Air Transport System
Air transport is a much more modern and faster means of transport. The importance of air transport has gradually growing.
This is the fastest speed means for transporting passengers and goods to different parts within a country and different countries of the world.
Pipeline Transport System
Pipeline is another important means of transport. Raw oil, Petroleum products, processed coal, drinking water, natural gas etc. are transported from one place to another place.
Pipeline transport may be constructed underground or underwater.
Rope-way Transport System
Rope-way is another means of transport. It can transport people and goods. It can be operated in the places where road construction is impractical and costly.
Certain limit of goods or people can be transported with the help of electricity. In the hilly remote countries, rope-way transport system may be suitable means.
Thus, the means of efficient transportation are an indispensable component of modern civilization. The economic development of a country depends largely on an efficient and adequate system of transport.
They form a very important way of gaining instrumental wealth.
No country in the world today can build up its prosperity unless it has a highly developed system of communication and transport. Development of an efficient transport system is a pre-condition of our economic development.
Transportation and Communication have an important bearing on the development of exchange and markets.
It results in increase land values, breaking of economic circles, and thus tend to equalize prices, making labor more mobile, enabling a greater division of labor among different industries and countries, determining the geographical distribution of industries, playing a very important part in relieving distress in the famine-stricken areas by rapid distribution of food-stuffs, resulting in the effectiveness of administration and national defense are inseparably connected with the advancement of transport system.
Thus, importance of transport cannot be denied. Therefore, it is the need of modern times to enhance, innovate, develop and make effective the modes of transportation mentioned above.
This will ultimately result in the development of the society as a whole and make people more prosperous and aware of each other and their surroundings.